— Diet Wiki Selected excerpts from the best websites —
The common bean is an important food crop and major source of protein throughout the world.
Used in a variety of traditional dishes, kidney beans are usually eaten well cooked. Raw or improperly cooked kidney beans are toxic, but well-prepared beans can be a healthy component of a well-balanced diet (1Trusted Source).
Kidney beans are high in fiber.
They contain substantial amounts of resistant starch, which may play a role in weight management (12Trusted Source).
White kidney beans are no ordinary beans. Partly thanks to its popularization by Dr. Oz, white kidney bean extract is now a common weight loss aid. This supplement purportedly acts as a carbohydrate blocker and reduces the levels of sugar and fatty molecules in the blood.
White Kidney Bean extract (also known by the brand Phase 2) is a carbohydrate blocker that works by inhibiting the digestion of starches.
By inhibiting their digestion, starches that are eaten are either left undigested in the gut or the amount of which is digested is reduced. These starches are either excreted and their calories not absorbed, or they are given to colonic bacteria to ferment (eat).
One of the few human studies showing a relationship between white kidney bean extract and weight loss was published in the International Journal of Medical Sciences in January 2007 and has been frequently cited in subsequent studies so it still appears to be relevant.
Overweight men and women who took a supplement containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract daily before a high-carb meal experienced a greater reduction in fat mass, waist and hips circumference, body mass index and other obesity markers compared to the control group. Surprisingly, they maintained lean body mass despite losing weight. This supplement appears to be safe.
It has been noted in humans to effectively decrease amylase activity.
Initially, studies in animals noted that raw bean consumption was able to ameliorate weight gain and later studies found that it could wholly be accounted for by a combination of reduced food intake and increased starch excretion, suggesting that the mechanism of action in vivo is due to malabsorption and that in vitro studies carry over.
… a 12-week clinical trial in 123 overweight and obese men and women showed that Phaseolus vulgaris modestly yet significantly reduced body weight and body fat . Participants consumed either a placebo or 1,000 mg Phaseolus vulgaris (IQP-PV-101; marketed under the Phase 2®, Starchlite®, and Phaselite™ brands) three times per day before meals for a total daily dose of 3,000 mg while following a mildly hypocaloric diet (500 kcal/day less than basal energy needs). Compared to those taking placebo, those receiving Phaseolus vulgaris lost significantly more body weight (mean loss of 2.91 kg vs. 0.92 kg for placebo) and body fat (2.23 kg vs. 0.65 kg for placebo).
In the U.S., Phase 2 makes the following claims (which the FDA has not objected to):
“May assist in weight control when used in conjunction with a sensible diet and exercise program,”
“May reduce the enzymatic digestion of dietary starches.”
Canada allows the following claims for Phase 2 Carb Controller:
“At 6 capsules (3000 mg) per day: Assists in weight management when used with a program of reduced intake of dietary calories and increased physical activity.”
“At 4-6 capsules (2000-3000 mg) per day: Provides support for healthy glucose metabolism following a carbohydrate rich meal.”
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded there was insufficient evidence “to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of the standardized aqueous extract from white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and reduction of body weight.” (EFSA 2014).
Most of the other health benefits cited by alternative practitioners are not so much related to the effects of white bean extract but rather the secondary benefits of weight loss in general.
As a weight loss aid, white bean extract has never been shown to prevent or treat hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, high cholesterol, cancer, or chronic kidney disease. The same applies to the enhancement of athletic performance or energy.
- They begin the digestion of complex carbohydrates, thus increasing the availability of simple sugars.
- The α-amylases bind to mouth bacteria (such as Viridans streptococci) and help them break down carbohydrates into simple sugars that they use as a food source. Bacteria produce acids, which dissolve tooth enamel and form cavities.
- They bind to enamel and promote the formation of teeth plaque by bacteria. Plaque buildup can lead to bleeding gums and cavities.
By blocking α-amylases, white kidney bean extract may help prevent cavities and bleeding gums.
White bean extract is considered safe if taken as prescribed. It is not intended for long-term or ongoing use. White bean extract may trigger minor side effects in some, including nausea, bloating, gas, and diarrhea.3 People allergic to beans should avoid white bean extracts.
White bean extract should not be used in children due to the lack of relevant research.
In clinical studies, Phase 2 has been taken in doses of up to 3,000 mg per day, typically in divided doses before meals, for up to 8 months for weight and/or fat loss or weight maintenance. A single dose of 2,000 to 3,000 mg taken with a meal may lessen increases in blood sugar after the meal. Dosage should not exceed 10 grams per day.